Many physiatrists complete a fellowship to gain expertise in spine injections. In a field which is rapidly changing however, it can be difficult to stay up to date on important patient safety related topics. This session will provide comprehensive up to date lectures on the most recent safety related issue in spine interventions. New literature on the safety of continuing or discontinuing anti-thrombosis medications for various spine interventions will be covered, including new information on the risk of thrombotic complications that can occur when these medications are held and the potential safety of continuing certain medications that were previously withheld. For cervical epidural injections the relative risk profile of interlaminar versus tranforaminal injections has changed with the adopted use of dexamethasone. New recommendations and case reports as they pertain to these different cervical epidural injections will be covered. Many patients who receive epidural steroid injections may also be surgical candidates, and new literature regarding the systemic effects and potential surgical infection risks associated with epidural steroids will be covered. Lastly, the nuisances of procedural technique are constantly being refined, and related topics such as the use of lidocaine during interalaminar injections, digital subtraction, and anesthetic test dose will be covered.