Physiatrists perform many different electrodiagnostic studies, often ones with implications for surgical management. Whether the patient needs surgery for a more usual problem or nerve repairs and transfers status post traumatic nerve injury, it's important that physiatrists include prognostic information in their report(s) which help with surgical decision making. Several challenging cases will be discussed which may have surgical implications. The emphasis will be on the relevance of a brief patient history and physical exam in designing an appropriate electrodiagnostic study for the patient's problem, performing the study, and interpreting the test results. Concluding statements will emphasis the importance of communication and interaction between physiatrists and the referring physicians.