Many questions and conflicting points of view about concussion science and medicine challenge the work of physiatrists providing care to athletes of all ages. The debates are taking place in discussions of diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk factors, treatment, and prevention. Is a concussion a physiological or a structural injury? How can we confirm the diagnosis? What is the youngest age that is safe for collision sports? Are females more likely to suffer concussions and have poorer outcomes than males, or are they just more likely to report symptoms? Who is at risk for post-concussion syndrome and late effects such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy? What treatments are best for headaches, sleep problems, and cognitive or emotional problems? When should athletes be retired from collision sports? Do changes in play rules or equipment help to prevent concussions? The panel of speakers will address these and other questions in the debates by providing current, and sometimes conflicting, research findings.