We will review updates in predictions of post-stroke motor recovery in the acute phase and chronic phase. We will also review the pathophysiology of muscle overactivity and disordered synergy production after stroke. Distinctions between neurological and functional motor recovery will be discussed. New findings from our clinic and research laboratories will be presented, such as dynamic EMG assessment of muscle overactivity and impaired voluntary synergy patterns in the upper limb, and dystonic motor overflow. Strategies to optimize rehabilitation treatment to facilitate motor recovery will be discussed and recommended.