Sex disparity exists in sports-related injury. Women are at increased risk of bone stress injuries and anterior cruciate ligament tears. However, men are more likely to develop Achilles tendinopathy and ruptures. The underlying mechanism for this sex disparity is multifactorial with differences in anatomy, biomechanics and hormones playing a role.

Endogenous sex hormones have been shown to alter the structure and function of a variety of musculoskeletal tissues and influence risk of injury. Musculoskeletal tissues are also influenced by exogenous hormones through hormonal contraceptives and hormonal therapy for transition to another gender, and emerging research suggests that exposure to hormones of different concentrations, potency and mode of delivery might have a differential effect on tissue function and susceptibility to injury.

This course will discuss the current understanding of the interplay between sex hormones and the structure and function of bone, ligament, tendon and muscle. Course participants will gain a greater understanding of the modulatory role of sex hormones in musculoskeletal injury and recovery.