Speakers with experience using ultrasound and EMG together in the lab will discuss how to use them as complimentary modalities to maximize the amount of useful information that PM&R doctors can provide for their patients and referring doctors. Before learning when to use each modality, it is important to understand the underlying physiology of common nerve diseases and injuries and why one test, both tests or neither test may be abnormal in that situation. Clearly documented cases of nerve pathology with normal NCV and abnormal US or the reverse exist, begging the question of why this would occur. The speakers will discuss the nerve pathology and principles of the diagnostic tests to connect them to these real life problems of falsely negative (or positive) results of either test in the lab. Ultimately, attendees will be given the indications for when to use each modality and the tools to understand the reasons for them.